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> Car Audio Glossary, the basics
post Dec 26 2007, 03:11 PM
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This is a great starting point for anyone new to car audio:


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post Dec 26 2007, 07:44 PM
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Outta the way!
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Great idea, Mitch. Here's the info directly from the page:
QUOTE (Crutchfield)
Car Stereo Glossary

Anti-Theft Protection
A security feature that helps prevent radio theft. There are several types of anti-theft protection currently in use:

* Detachable Face — Lets you remove the control panel of your receiver easily, and take it with you when you leave the car. The stereo is useless to thieves without the faceplate, so the temptation to break in your car is greatly reduced. All but a handful of the receivers we offer come with a detachable face.
* Security Code Some stereos give you the option of setting up a security code. This is usually in addition to having a detachable faceplate. The security code is a three or four button combination, usually using the radio preset buttons, that has to be entered before the stereo will function.

Auxiliary Input
An input on the face or rear of the receiver that enables you to connect a plug-and-play satellite radio tuner or portable music player (CD, MP3, or cassette) to the receiver. The input jack can be either Mini or RCA.

CEA-2006 Compliant
On May 28, 2003, the Consumer Electronics Association published standard CEA-2006, "Testing & Measurement Methods for Mobile Audio Amplifiers." This "voluntary" standard advocates a uniform method for determining an amplifier's RMS power and signal-to-noise ratio. Using 14.4 volts, RMS watts are measured into a 4-ohm impedance load at 1 percent Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) plus noise, at a frequency range (for general purpose amplifiers) of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. Signal-to-Noise ratio is measured in weighted absolute decibels (dBA) at a reference of 1 watt into 4 ohms. This applies to both external amplifiers and the amplifiers within in-dash receivers.

CEA-2006 allows consumers to be able to compare car amplifiers and receivers on an equal basis. Manufacturers who choose to abide by the new standard are able to stamp their products with the CEA-2006 logo that reads: "Amplifier Power Standard CEA-2006 Compliant."

CD Text
Some compact discs contain encoded text data that can include the artist name, disc name, and/or track name. Text-capable receivers can decode and display this information on the readout.

CD-R, CD-RW Compatibility
CD receivers with this capability can play audio CD-Rs and/or CD-RWs as well as prerecorded CDs. Almost all of today's receivers can play CD-R and CD-RW discs.

Changer Controls
Originally, changer controls referred to a receiver's ability to control a same-brand CD changer. These days, the changer control connection on a receiver can be used to add one of any number of peripheral devices. Most stereo brands let you choose from a CD changer, satellite radio, iPod® adapter, USB adapter, Bluetooth™ adapter, and more.

A codec is a method of compressing and decompressing digitized sound. MP3 and WMA are examples of different codecs. In the standard CD audio format, one minute of music takes up roughly 10 megabytes. When converted to MP3, that same minute of music takes up only about 1 megabyte.

Crossover (High-Pass Filter)
A built-in high-pass filter allows only frequencies above the crossover point to pass through. This filter may work with the speaker outputs, preamp outputs, or both.

Crossover (Low-Pass Filter)
A built-in low-pass filter allows only low frequencies to pass through. This filter may work with the speaker outputs (very rare), preamp outputs, or both.

Custom Programming
Some changer controller combinations let you specify exactly which tracks will play on a CD. Disc title features let you assign each disc a name that will appear on the in-dash display when that disc is loaded.

Sony's Custom File Plus systems, for example, let you display the titles of all loaded CDs without interrupting playback, and also let you program two separate twelve song sequences.

Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Converter
Your CD receiver uses a D/A converter to convert digital 1s and 0s back into analog audio signals. CDs store audio data in binary, digital form. This digital data is an accurate, noise-free reproduction of recorded signals, but in digital form it doesn't sound like music to your ears. The D/A converter translates the digital info back into music — that's why it's so important to your CD receiver's performance.

Digital Media Files
Music which has been subjected to data compression — allowing users to store many hours of music as computer files. A growing number of in-dash CD receivers have the ability to decode and play recordable CDs (CD-Rs and CD-RWs) loaded with MP3, WMA, AAC, or WAV files. A single disc can hold up to ten hours of music.


* Fold-down Face — Slot-faced receivers are convenient, but their displays are smaller out of necessity. A fold-down face, on the other hand, hides the CD slot behind the control panel, and allows the receiver to include a larger display for greater legibility. Hiding the slot also increases the unit's reliability by reducing internal exposure to dust and dirt.

* Multicolor Display — A multicolor display improves readability and reduces the amount of time your eyes spend away from the road. Monochrome displays cannot represent different functions with unique colors, so you spend more time trying to decipher the readout.

* Backlight — A backlit display significantly improves visibility under adverse conditions. For example, if the sun is shining on your faceplate, a backlit display is easier to see.

DVD/CD Receivers
These versatile CD receivers can also play DVD movies, and may play DVD audio discs. Some models send the video signal to an outboard backseat monitor for on-the-go viewing, while other models include a built-in screen for stationary viewing. These receivers have digital-to-analog converters that are superior to those found in most regular CD receivers, so your CDs will usually sound better on a DVD receiver.

A built-in EQ lets you tailor the sound to your listening tastes and to your vehicle's acoustics. Receivers with built-in EQs will have one or more equalizer "bands" in addition to standard bass and treble controls. These equalizer "bands" usually have fixed center frequencies and bandwidths (although some may be adjustable).

More sophisticated built-in EQs offer parametric equalization, which allows you to set the amount (in dB) by which a certain frequency band is boosted or cut — and determine the width and/or center frequency of this band. This gives you extremely precise control of the tonal balance in your vehicle.

Equalizer Presets
Preset EQ curves are stored tone settings — boosting and cutting different frequencies can make big changes in the way your music sounds. Preset EQ curves are stored in memory, and are easily activated. If you listen to a wide variety of music, these presets are useful for making dramatic tonal changes instantly. (For example, you could use one EQ preset with heavy bass boost for rap or reggae, and a second preset with flat bass and a slight midrange/treble boost for jazz. This saves you from constant readjustment of the tone controls.)

European Tuning
The European tuning interval of .05 MHz is different from the US tuning interval of .2 MHz. If a CD receiver also has European tuning, it is compatible with the European scale and can be used in many European countries.

FM Mono Sensitivity
This figure tells you how well a CD receiver can pick up FM radio signals. The smaller the number, the greater the ability to pick up weaker stations. Expressed in decibel femtowatts (dBf).

FM Stereo Separation
A measure of the ability of an FM tuner to re-create a vivid stereo effect. Measured in dB (decibels), the higher the figure the better.

Frequency Response
The range of sounds, from bass to treble, a stereo component can reproduce. It's measured in Hertz (Hz), and a wider range is better — the bass will be lower and the treble will be higher. Humans can perceive sounds from 20 to 20,000 Hz. The lowest note on a bass guitar is about 41 Hz. Most male vocalists have a range between 100 and 500 Hz. Cymbals hit at about 15,000 Hz.

Ground Loop
A ground loop occurs when any piece of equipment or any incoming wire is connected to a different ground or grounds. If your in-dash receiver and amplifier are grounded to different locations, for example, a ground loop may occur. In this situation, the multiple ground paths can, in effect, act as an antenna for interference. The interference is turned into noise, and you hear it in your system.

Intro Scan
Lets you hear the first few seconds of each track on a CD. Hit the button again when you hear the song you're looking for. The scanning feature will stop, and that track will continue playing.

This control allows you to boost the lower frequencies in your music for full, rich sound at lower volumes.

MP3 encoding compresses musical data, enabling users to store many hours of music as computer files. A growing number of in-dash CD receivers have the ability to decode and play recordable CDs (CD-Rs and/or CD-RWs) loaded with MP3 files. Also, portable MP3 players can be used to play these files through a car receiver's auxilary inputs.

Multi-path Interference
Multi-path interference affects FM radio reception. FM waves travel in a straight line, so anything between you and the FM transmitter can cause multi-path interference. When FM signals bounce off buildings and other large objects , the tuner picks up the same signal more than once, at different times. This create "echoes" that confuse the tuner by mixing with the original signal.

Peak Power
Peak power is measured during a brief musical burst, such as a sudden drum accent. Some manufacturers display peak power ratings on the face of their products. The RMS power rating is more significant, and we recommend using it for comparison purposes.

Preamp Outputs
Jacks on the rear of a CD receiver that allow you to use a standard RCA patch cable to add an external amp. Some receivers have two sets, which help if you plan to add a 4-channel amp or a second amp. Some receivers have three sets, one of which is usually intended to be used for a subwoofer amp.

Some receivers offer a "non-fading" set of preamp outputs. Hook your subwoofer amp to the non-fading outputs, and you can fade the regular speakers front to rear without affecting the sound of the subwoofer.

Preamp Output Voltage
The output voltage of the receiver's preamp outputs. Higher preamp output voltage can mean cleaner sound (better noise resistance) and higher output from your amp.

Radio Data System
RDS stands for Radio Data System. RDS tuners can automatically tune in stations according to the style of music (or talk) they broadcast. Some RDS tuners can even break in with traffic alerts or emergency broadcasts when you're listening to a CD. RDS enables your receiver to display text messages (usually call letters and format info) that many FM stations include on a subcarrier signal within their normal broadcast signal.

RMS Power
The amount of continuous power, measured in watts, that an amplifier produces is called Root Mean Square (RMS) power. The higher the RMS figure, the louder and cleaner your music sounds.

Random Play
Also known as shuffle play. Mixes up the order of songs during playback. Some CD players offer a "Random Play with Delete" feature that prevents a song from being repeated once it has been played.

Remote Control
For remote-compatible CD receivers, wired or infrared wireless remotes are either included with a receiver, or available as accessories.

Satellite Radio Controls
CD receivers with satellite radio controls operate same-brand external satellite radio tuners. A specialized antenna and service subscription are also required (in addition to the tuner) to receive the satellite radio signal.

Scan and Seek Tuning

* Preset Scan lets you push a button and automatically hear a brief sample of what's on each of your preset stations.

* Station Scan lets you sample each strong station (regardless of whether it's one of your presets) — the sampling continues until you hit the station scan button again.

* Seek tuning moves to the next strong station and stops there — you must hit the "Seek" button again to repeat the process.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio
A measure of how well a CD player silences background noise. Higher ratings, in decibels (dB), indicate less noise.

signal-to-noise ratio chart

Subwoofer Preamp Outputs
RCA output jacks (usually coupled with a built-in low-pass filter) for connection to a subwoofer amplifier.

Time Correction
A processing circuit found in some receivers that compensates for the uneven distances between left and right car speakers and listeners' ears. Time correction delays signals from the closest speaker(s), so that all the sound arrives at your off-center listening position at the same time. You'll get a more accurate, lifelike stereo image.

Track Repeat
Plays the same track over and over until you turn the feature off.

Travel Presets or Best Tuning Memory
Engage this feature and the CD receiver automatically loads a bank of your presets with the strongest available signals. It makes finding stations easier when you're driving through unfamiliar territory. It also makes loading presets a snap when you first install the receiver or any time your battery runs down or gets disconnected (which wipes out the tuner's preset memory). Some receivers use a bank or two of your regular station presets for storage; others have dedicated travel presets plus station presets for manual storage.

Tripath Technologies is the developer of the Class-T® amplifier design, which combines the low distortion and excellent sound quality of the Class AB design with the efficiency advantages of the Class D design. Tripath uses switching transistors to achieve very high power efficiency (around 90%), low heat production, and compact chassis-size.

Video System Control
Receivers with video system control operate same-brand/compatible video components and play TV sound through your car audio speakers (when video components are connected).

Zero-bit Detector
Some CD receivers feature a circuit that detects periods of no audio signal (a series of zeros in the digital bit stream) and mutes the audio output. You'll hear dead silence until an audio signal is detected again.



"If what Jesus said was good, what can it matter if he was God or not?" - Kurt Vonnegut

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